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Author Guidelines

The Submission Process is broken into the following steps. Detailed instructions for each step can be found on the submission pages.
  • Step 1: Specify the manuscript type, complete the checklist, enter your "Data and Code Availability Statement", submit a covering letter, and if necessary, assign your manuscript to a Special Feature.

  • Step 2: Specify the author information.
    • Authors must be individuals, not groups or corporations
    • Author's names and affiliations will appear in the published paper the way you enter them. Please take the time to ensure your coauthors' names and affiliations are correct.
    • Affiliations may include department, institution, city, and/or country. None are required.
    • Enter mail or street addresses in the contact information box. Addresses are not required.

  • Step 3: Enter the Title, Abstract, Key words/phrases, and Acknowledgments.
    • All must be text only.

  • Step 4: Upload the body of the manuscript - Text only - From "Introduction" through to the end of the "Literature Cited".
    • Title, abstract, keywords, and acknowledgments are already entered. Please do not duplicate.
    • Figures, tables, appendices, equations, and all other attachments will be uploaded in Step 5.

  • Step 5: Specify the list of attachments and upload those attachments (tables, figures, equations, appendices)
  • Step 6: Final verification of the manuscript

Note: The author interface for each of these steps includes details on how to enter the information required.


Data and Code Availability Statement

Ecology and Society invites authors to make all relevant data and code underlying the findings described in your manuscript fully available. Data can be qualitative or quantitative, collected via physical measurements, surveys, interviews, observations, or other forms of data collection. Code refers to computer code of computer models as well as scripts for data analysis. The reason for this is to improve the quality of the manuscripts and facilitate the increasing requests from research funders to share and archive research data and code. As part of the submission of the manuscript the data and code must be made available to editors and peer reviewers for the purposes of evaluating the manuscript by providing a code and data availability statement. Upon acceptance of the paper and as part of the publication, the authors provide a data and code availability statement, which specifies that the data and code are deposited publicly and lists the name(s) of archives along with digital object identifiers or URLs for the relevant deposits. With respect to data from human subjects, we ask that you forward only information that was approved by the institutional ethics review committee that approved the research study.

Examples of recommended public archives include Open Science Framework, Dryad, Zenodo, Figshare, and CoMSES.

Examples of such statements are:

Availability of
data and code
Template for data and code availability statement
Data/code openly available in a public repository that issues datasets with DOIs The data/code that support the findings of this study are openly available in [repository name e.g., “figshare”] at[doi], reference number [reference number]. Ethical approval for this research study was granted by [organization and approval number].
Data/code openly available in a public repository that does not issue DOIs The data/code that support the findings of this study are openly available in [repository name] at [URL], reference number [reference number].
Data/code derived from public domain resources The data/code that support the findings of this study are available in [repository name] at [URL/DOI], reference number [reference number]. These data/code were derived from the following resources available in the public domain: [list resources and URLs]
Data/code available on request because of privacy/ethical restrictions The data/code that support the findings of this study are available on request from the corresponding author, [initials]. The data/code are not publicly available because of [restrictions e.g., their containing information that could compromise the privacy of research participants].
Data/code sharing not applicable – no new data/code generated Data/code sharing is not applicable to this article because no new data/code were created or analyzed in this study.

Formatting a Manuscript

1. Organizing your submission
To submit, please separate your manuscript and save to the following file types:
  • body - from Introduction to end of Literature Cited - (rich-text format)
  • tables (each table is an individual file, in rich-text format)
  • figures (each figure is an individual image file: GIF, PNG, or JPG)
  • equations (each equation is an individual image file: GIF, PNG, or JPG -- GIF is best for equations)
  • appendices (pdf for text, tables, and figures; other file types are accepted for online resources, models, spreadsheets, etc.)
If you are unable to save in one of these formats please contact the editorial office.

2. Title, Abstract, Key words/phrases, and Acknowledgments

     (Step 3 of the submission processs)

Enter your title, abstract, key words/phrases, and acknowledgments directly into the submission interface, either by typing or cutting-and-pasting. Do not duplicate them in the body of your manuscript.
  • Title
    • The title should be entered with only the first word and proper nouns capitalized.
      Example: "Basic science, applied science, and the radical middle ground"
    • Avoid abbreviations
  • Abstracts
    • Abstracts should be less than 300 words.
    • They should not contain citations.
    • Avoid abbreviations - if used they must be first spelled out.
  • Key words/phrases should be listed alphabetically and separated by a semicolon.

3. Body of the manuscript (from Introduction through to end of Literature Cited)

Note: Figures or tables in the body of the manuscript will generate errors during the submission procedure. Headings and subheadings must appear on a line by themselves

Main headings:
  • Standard headings should be used preferentially (if apprpriate)
  • Other headings are permissible
  • Use LITERATURE CITED (not Bibliography, References, nor anything else)
  • centered on a line by themselves
Secondary headings
  • left-justified on a line by themselves
  • bolded
  • lowercase except for initial letter of the first word
  • e.g., General characteristics of movement
Tertiary headings
  • left-justified on a line by themselves
  • italicized
  • lowercase except for initial letter of the first word
  • e.g., Field study and simulation model

Equations and Greek characters


The process of inserting equations occurs in both Steps 4 and 5.
  • First, you must indicate where in the manuscript you want the equations (Step 4)
  • Next, you must upload the image of the equation (Step 5).
To designate the location of each equation: Insert tags <eqn#> into the text of your manuscript where the equation should appear,
where # = 1,2,3,...,n indicates the sequential number of the equation.

During Step 5, you will be prompted to upload images of your equation(s).
Upload each equation as a separate graphic file named eqn#.gif, where # corresponds to the tags inserted into the body of the manuscript.
Any one equation may be specified any number of times by inserting the appropriate tag in the manuscript in multiple locations.

Greek characters

To include Greek characters in your manuscript please either use the "Insert -- Symbol" feature in Microsoft Word,
write out the full name of the Greek character and enclose the word in parentheses (e.g., <alpha>, <beta>) within the text of your manuscript (click here for a complete list of Greek characters and the associated full name).

Text Boxes

To set content apart in a Text Box, place <txt#> at the beginning and </txt#> at the end of the content (where # = 1, 2, 3... is the appropriate box number). Put into the body of the manuscript in the approximate desired location.

Details of Style

Within text referencing
  • include author plus year of publishing, (Smith 2000)
  • separate two references with a comma, (Smith 2000, Green 2002)
  • list oldest reference first, (Smith 2000, Green 2002, Brown 2012)
  • if two authors give both names, if three authors use 'et al.', (Smith and Brown 2000, Smith et al. 2012)
  • the same author in two different years- name the author only once (Smith 2000, 2012, Brown 2013)
  • the same author in the same year, designate with italicized letters (Smith 2000a)
  • direct quotes should include date followed by page number (Smith 2000:197)
  • second hand references (Smith 2000, as cited in Brown 2005)
    Note: Smith 2000 should not appear in Lit. Cited section.

Spacing and Fonts

Single-space all material.
Separate paragraphs with a blank line.
Use a 12-point font (preferably Times Roman).


Italicize scientific names and the symbols for all variables and constants except Greek letters in the text.
Symbols in illustrations should be italic to match the text.
Italics should NOT be used for emphasis.
Do not underline text.


For common names of birds, follow the Ornithological Societies of North America style (AOU checklist), with initial capital letters: Black-throated Green Warbler. For all nonavian taxa, use lower case for common names.


Avoid footnotes in the body of the manuscript; most footnote material can be incorporated in the text for the benefit of readers and editors.

Footnotes below tables are acceptable; instead of numbers, please use (in order): †, ‡, §, |, ¶, #, ††, ‡‡, §§, ||, ¶¶, ##.


Use the International System of Units (Systeme Internationale: SI) for measurements. Consult Standard Practice for Use of the International System of Units (ASTM Standard E-380-93) for guidance on unit conversions, style, and usage. When preparing text and figures, note in particular that,
  1. SI requires the use of the terms mass or force rather than weight;
  2. use the solidus (/); for two or more units in a denominator, use negative exponents; and
  3. use a capital L as the symbol for liter.


Use leading zeroes with all numbers <1, including probability values (e.g., P < 0.001). For every significant F statistic reported, provide two df values (numerator and denominator). Whenever possible, indicate the year and version number of the statistical software used.

Web (HTML) links

Authors may include links to other Internet resources in their article [e.g., the Breeding Bird Survey (]. When inserting a reference to a webpage, please include the http:// portion of the address.

  • The Council of Science Editors (CSE) Style Guide, is recommended for details of style.
  • Manuscripts are currently accepted in English only.
  • Write with precision, clarity, and economy:
    use the active voice and first person whenever appropriate.
  • Use American spellings (e.g., behavior, not behaviour) except when quoting or in citations.

Literature cited - In general, use Harvard Referencing System.
  • Each citation in the text must be included in the Literature Cited section.
  • Every reference in the Literature Cited must be referred to in the text.
  • The list should conform in sequencing and punctuation to that found in recent issues of Ecology and Society.

Citing Ecology and Society: Example  reference
Example Journal Citation: Example reference
  • All journal titles should be spelled out completely (i.e., do not abbreviate journal titles).
  • In the titles of articles, the spellings of all words should agree with that used in the original publication.
  • Provide the publisher's name and location when you cite symposia or conference proceedings; distinguish between the conference date and the publication date if both are given.
  • Do not list abstracts or unpublished material in the Literature Cited. They may be listed in the text as personal observations (by an author of the present paper), personal communications (from others), or unpublished x, where x = data, manuscript, or report;
  • Provide authors' names and initials for all unpublished data, manuscripts, and reports in the text of the paper.
  • Links to online, freely available articles are permitted. Please use the following format:
    [online] URL:
  • Do not include links to password-protected websites or an author's website. Exceptions to this rule include links to Birds of North America species accounts and links to author's websites that post a software program that is not available by any other means and is integral to the paper.
  • Insert spaces between author's initials.
  • Last name appears first for first author; initial(s) first for subsequent authors.
  • Books and conference proceedings must include publisher information: name, city, state or province (if pertinent), country.
  • Conference proceedings must include the city, state/province, country, and year in which the conference was held. Conference dates are typically included, although not required. The editor(s) of the Proceedings should be included, if possible.
  • Journal articles in press should include the volume number of the journal even if the page range is not known.
4. Attachments (tables, figs, etc.)

All tables, figures, appendices, videos, computer simulations, and databases constitute attachments to the body of the manuscript. As such, they must be submitted as separate files. During the submission process you will be required to select your attachment type from a drop down list, and then type or paste its associated caption – these steps are repeated until you have input the captions for all of your attachments. You will then upload the attachment files, and our software will generate a web page for each attachment based on the file names and captions provided. Do not include captions or titles in the attachment files themselves.

Please see the Equations section below for information on how to format equations.

Tables (saved as .rtf files)
  • The table's caption is entered separately and should not appear in the table.
  • Single space
  • Row and column entries separated by cell divisions using the table function in word processing software.
    (That is, tabs, spaces, or blank lines to separate information will not work.)
  • No horizontal or vertical lines (borders) to separate cells
  • No images within tables
  • No color
  • Use regular font in column and row headings (no bold or italics)
  • Do not merge rows, merging across columns is okay
  • No bulleted or numbered lists
  • Asterisks are reserved to denote levels of significance, not for footnotes
  • Superscripted numbers may be used to identify citations within a table
  • The footnote symbols should be in the order: †, ‡, §, |, Ά , #, and then doubled symbols. (See CSE Style Manual).
  • Do not include information in tables that is not discussed in the text of the manuscript.
Example Tables:
example tables


  • Figures are added during Step 5 of the submission process.
  • Figures must be clear and sharp.
  • Use imaging software (Excel does not export graphs well).
  • Figures must be in .GIF, .PNG, or .JPG formats.
    • For photos or images with gradients of color use JPG.
    • For images with flat colour use GIF or PNG8.
  • up to 300 ppi and no wider than 2000 pixels (unless given explicit permission by the managing editor).
  • the image will be printed 7.5 cm wide (complex figures may be printed at 16cm) - text should be legible, clear, and sharp at that size. Print your figure at 7.5 cm; is it legible, clear, and sharp?
  • We may ask you to supply high resolution, print-quality versions of your figures.
  • Font must be large, legible, and sans serif; Arial font is best.
  • Use a white background
  • No title or caption information in the figure. That information is entered elsewhere.
  • Initial upper case letters are preferred except where SI requires lower case letters for unit abbreviations (e.g., dbh, ln).
  • No border around your figures
  • Color figures are encouraged. Please verify they will print well in black-and-white (and that colour selection would be distinguishable to people who are red-green colour-blind).
  • Use shaded, or hatched bars in preference to color or black ones.
  • Use italic lettering for single-letter variables, constants, and scientific names in illustrations to make them consistent with the text.
  • Use bar graphs in preference to pie charts

Example Figures:
example figures


Appendices are not copy edited nor formatted prior to publication so authors must ensure that their appendix is formatted correctly.

Appendices containing text, tables, and/or figures should be uploaded as PDF, formatted according the journal's style.

The top margin of the appendix must be 4 cm.

Include a heading and caption in your pdf, where the heading "Appendix #." is left aligned, bold, and the caption (not bold) is Sentence Case.

Table and figure numbers in appendices should be keyed to the letter identifying that appendix:
Fig. A1.1, for Figure 1 in Appendix 1;
Table A2.3 for Table 3 in Appendix 2.
Equations should be numbered similarly: A2.3, for Equation 3 in Appendix 2, and so on.

Tables are formatted with a double line above the heading, and single lines below the heading and below the last table row.

Enter all title and caption information when asked during the submission process, and upload each appendix as a separate file.

Other appendices

All nontext appendices, such as databases, video, or sound files may be uploaded using an appropriate filetype for the file contents. Appendices should be labeled logically to indicate content (i.e. "Program#.filetype", "Sound#.filetype"). Captions should describe the attachment fully (by content, file format, usage, software required to run them, etc.) and are uploaded separately during the submission process.

Submission Preparation Checklist (All items required)

This work has not been published elsewhere, nor is it presently being considered for publication by another journal.
If either of these conditions apply, provide complete details in a covering letter (below) to the editors. Failure to notify the editors is grounds for rejection.

I understand that Resilience Alliance is not for profit and charge a publication fee to offset costs of publishing articles that are freely available. The base cost is $975/manuscript.
*Authors submitting to a Special Feature may have their fees covered by a separate funding source.

Please make sure you know whether your fees are covered. Waivers must be granted before submission.

I understand that a manuscript longer than 5000 word will be subject to additional charges.

Use of figures and tables that have been published elsewhere is strongly discouraged.
If use of such material simply cannot be avoided, the author MUST
  1. declare in a cover letter that such material is submitted

  2. receive written permission from the original publisher to use the materials in perpetuity (that is, without any time limit). You can download copyright permission forms at and submit the completed form after your article is accepted for publication.

The text adheres to the formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines (see About the Journal).

The text of the paper, and tables are in Rich Text Format (RTF).
The body of the manuscript has no embedded figures, equations, or tables.

Equations and figures, if present, are correctly referenced in the body of the paper.

(Have individual image files of the equations and figures ready for upload.)

I have checked with my coauthors about their names and affiliations. I understand that they will not be changed after publication.

If the work involves human subjects, the author certifies that the work was done with prior approval for human subjects research by an institutional review board (IRB) or equivalent ethics committee(s). The author certifies that the work followed ethical practices designated by either an IRB or ethics committee. If requested from the journal, the author will present documentation from the review board or ethics committee confirming approval of the research
Otherwise, the author certifies that the work did not involve human subjects.

Copyright and Permissions
Copyright © is held by the contributing authors or, where required by law, their employers.
As of 15 February 2017 articles are published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. You may share and adapt the work for non-commercial purposes provided the original author and source are credited, you indicate whether any changes were made, and you include a link to the license.

To use material cited within these papers (i.e., not the original work of the authors) you must contact the original copyright holders for permission.
Privacy Statement
All personal information entered in the journal site (including but not limited to names and email addresses) will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.

Using the Discussion Feature

To facilitate thoughtful discussion about our articles we have added a "Discussion" feature. Discussion comments are not reviewed however will be moderated by journal management. Anyone can comment - just sign in and submit.

To start or join a discussion you need an account.
You already have an account if you have worked as a reviewer, author, editor, or have previously submitted comments. Otherwise you need to register. We do not share your information nor will we start sending you newsletters.

To use Internet Explorer10 (IE) you must have the Compatibility View checked.  To do this:
Using IE browse to the E&S website.  In the menu bar select "Tools" - if menu bar is not visible hit the "alt" key and it will appear at the top of the page.
In the Tools dropdown list, about half way down "compatibility view" should be checked.  If it is not click on it.
Now Internet Explorer will work.

Ecology and Society. ISSN: 1708-3087