The online submission process is broken into the following steps:
The author interface for each of these steps includes details on how
to enter the information required.
- Step 1: Specifying the manuscript
type, and submitting a covering letter
- Step 2: Specifying the authors and author contact information
- Step 3: Specifying the title, abstract, and keywords
- Step 4: Uploading the body text
- Step 5: Specifying the list of attachments and then uploading those attachments
- Step 6: Final verification of the manuscript
Formatting a Manuscript
ORGANIZING YOUR SUBMISSION
Manuscripts submitted to Ecology and Society must be divided
into separate files to allow processing by our software.
have embedded figures or tables in the body text can not be processed
and will generate errors during the submission procedure.
Before attempting an online submission, please separate your submission
into the following file types:
- body text (rich-text format)
- tables (each table is an individual file, in rich-text format)
- figures (each figure is an individual image file: JPG, GIF, PNG)
- equations (each figure is an individual image file: JPG, GIF, PNG)
- appendices (text and images should be pdf format - models and video use appropriate format)
- online resource (For computation model submissions only - include a direct link to model that is archived in the Open abm model library (http://www.openabm.org/models)
The majority of word processing programs will save to Rich Text Format.
GIF and JPG image formats should be adequate for most non-animated figures.
If you are unable to save in one of these formats please contact the editorial office.
Authors are encouraged to keep their articles to 5000 words or less.
There is an extra cost for longer articles. The word count includes the abstract and the main body of the article only. Literature Cited, figures, tables and appendices are not included in the word count.
Do not include them in the body text of your manuscript.
Type or cut-and-paste directly into the submission interface.
The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, is recommended for details of style.
- All papers must be in English. Write with precision, clarity, and economy:
Use the active voice and first person whenever appropriate.
- Avoid parenthetical comments and italics or bold for emphasis.
- Avoid quotation marks except for direct quotations, words defined by the author,
and words used in unusual contexts.
- Short quotations should be embedded in the text and enclosed in double quotation
- Long quotations should be on a separate line, italicized, but without quotation
- Single quotation marks are to be used only for a quotation that occurs within
- Use American spelling (e.g., behavior, not behaviour) except for quotes and
Spacing, Fonts, and Page Numbering
Single-space all material (text, quotations, figure legends, tables,
references, etc.). Separate paragraphs with a blank line. Use a 12-point font
(preferably Times Roman).
Do not use italics for emphasis.
- scientific names,
- long direct quotations, and
- symbols for all variables and
constants except Greek letters in the text. Symbols in Illustrations and equations should
be italic to match the text.
Do not underline text.
Avoid footnotes in the body text of your manuscript; most footnote material
can be incorporated in the text for the benefit of readers and editors.
Additionally, footnotes are not handled well by our journal software,
and their inclusion may result in a failed submission. Footnotes below
tables are acceptable; instead of numbers, please use (in order): †, ‡,
§, |, ¶, #, ††, ‡‡, §§, ||, ¶¶, ##.
Use the International System of Units (SI) for measurements. Consult
Standard Practice for Use of the International System of Units
(ASTM Standard E-380-93) for guidance on unit conversions, style, and
usage. When preparing text and figures, note
in particular that (1) SI requires the use of the terms mass or force
rather than weight; (2) when one unit appears in a denominator, use the
solidus (/); for two or more units in a denominator, use negative exponents;
and (3) use a capital L as the symbol for liter.
- Text boxes are not attachments. They are part of the manuscript body.
- Type the desired text into the manuscript where you want the box to appear
- At the start of the text type <txt1> and at the end type </txt1>
- Number the text boxes appropriately e.g., the second box should be <txt2> </txt2>
Use leading zeroes with all numbers <1, including probability values
(e.g., P < 0.001). For every significant F statistic reported, provide
two df values (numerator and denominator). Whenever possible, indicate
the year and version number of the statistical software used.
Web (HTML) links
Authors may include links to other Internet resources in their article
[(e.g., the Resilience Alliance (http://www.resalliance.org/)]. This is
especially encouraged in the reference section. When inserting a reference
to a webpage, please include the http:// portion of the address.
Headings and subheadings
Main headings: The body text should be subdivided into different sections
with appropriate headings. Where possible, the following standard headings
should be used. These headings must appear on a single line by themselves,
and be UPPER CASE. Please do not number headings or subheadings.
|| The motivation or purpose of your research should appear in the
Introduction, where you state the questions you sought to answer,
and then provide some of the historical basis for those questions.
||Provide sufficient information to allow someone to repeat your work.
A clear description of your experimental design, sampling procedures,
and statistical procedures is especially important in papers describing
field studies, simulations, or experiments. If you list a product
(e.g., animal food, analytical device), supply the name and location
of the manufacturer. Give the model number for equipment used. Supply
complete citations, including author (or editor), title, year, publisher,
and version number, for computer software mentioned in your article.
||Results should be stated concisely and without interpretation.
||Focus on the rigorously supported aspects of your study. Carefully
differentiate the results of your study from data obtained from other
sources. Interpret your results, relate them to the results of previous
research, and discuss the implications of your results or interpretations.
Point out results that do not support speculations or the findings
of previous research, or that are counterintuitive. You may choose
to include a Speculation subsection in which you pursue new ideas
suggested by your research, compare and contrast your research with
findings from other systems or other disciplines, pose new questions
that are suggested by the results of your study, and suggest ways
of answering these new questions.
||The list of Literature Cited should be included after the final
section of the main article body. A blank line should be inserted
between single-spaced entries in the list.
Where possible, the standard headings should be used in the order given
above. Additional headings may be used and modifications to these heading
suggestions are permissible
Secondary headings should be left-justified, bolded, and lowercase except for the intial letter of the first word which should be uppercase (e.g. Study site). Tertiary headings should be left-justified, italicized, and lowercase except for the intial letter of the first word which should be uppercase. (e.g. Field study and Simulation model).
All lower headings must appear on a line by themselves.
Before submitting the manuscript, check each citation in the text against
the Literature Cited to ensure that they match exactly. Delete citations
from the list if they are not actually cited in the text of the article. Citations in the text should be formatted as follows: (Smith 1990) or (Smith et al. 1998, Brock and Gunderson 2001, Felt 2006)
The list of literature cited should conform in sequencing and punctuation to that found in
recent issues of Ecology and Society. Users of reference management software may use any formatting template created for the journal Ecology, which conforms closely to Ecology and Society formatting requirements.
All journal titles should be spelled out completely. In the titles of articles, capitalization of
the common names of organisms and the spellings of all words should agree
exactly with that used in the original publication.
Provide the publisher's name and location when you cite symposia or conference
proceedings; distinguish between the conference date and the publication
date if both are given.
Do not list abstracts or unpublished material
in the Literature Cited. They may be listed in the text as personal observations
(by an author of the present paper), personal communications (from others),
or unpublished x, where x = data, manuscript, or report;
provide author names and initials for all unpublished work and abstracts.
When possible, include URLs for articles available online through library
subscription or individual journal subscription. URLs should not be included
for articles that are posted on an author's website, unless it is a software
or language program that is not available by any other means and is integral
to the paper.
Example of literature cited:
Bissonette, J. A., and I. Storch. 2002. Fragmentation: is the
message clear? Conservation Ecology 6(2):14. [online] URL:
Borror, D. J., editor. 1976. An introduction to the study
of insects. Fourth edition. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York,
New York, USA.
Chapin, F. S., III, G. R. Shaver, A. E. Giblin, K. J. Nadelhoffer,
and J. A. Laundre. 1995. Responses of arctic tundra to experimental
and observed changes in climate. Ecology 76:694-711.
Dullinger, S., T. Dirnböck, and G. Grabherr. 2004. Modelling
climate change-driven treeline shifts: relative effects of temperature
increase, dispersal and invasibility. Journal of Ecology 92:241-252.
Feth, J. A. 1947. The geology of Northern Canelo Hills, Santa
Cruz County, Arizona. Dissertation. University of Arizona, Tucson,
Gilchrist, G., M. Mallory, and F. Merkel. 2005. Can local ecological
knowledge contribute to wildlife management? Case studies of migratory
birds. Ecology and Society, in press.
Gradwohl, J., and R. Greenberg. 1982. The breeding season of
antwrens on Barro Colorado Island. Pages 345-352 in E. C. Leigh, Jr.,
A. S. Rand, and D. M. Windsor, editors. The ecology of a tropical forest:
seasonal rhythms and long-term changes. Smithsonian Institution Press,
Washington, D.C., USA.
McDermott, R. E., and P. W. Fletcher. 1955. Influence of light
and nutrition on color and growth of redcedar seedlings. Agriculture
Experiment Station Research Bulletin 587, University of Missouri, Columbia,
National Cartography and Geospatial Center. 1998. Instructions
for collecting the 1997 National Resources Inventory data. [online]
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 1961-1980. Climatological
data—Kansas. Environmental Data and Information Service, National
Climatic Center, Asheville, North Carolina, USA.
Owen, W. 2002 The history of native plant communities in the
south. Pages 47-62 in D. N. Wear and J. G. Greis, editors. The
southern forest resource assessment: technical report. U.S. Forest
Service General Technical Report SRS-53.
Schaefer, M. 1975. Experimental studies on the importance of
interspecies competition for the lycosid spiders in a salt marsh. Pages
86-90 in Proceedings of the Sixth International Arachnological Congress
(Amsterdam, 1974). Nederlandse Entomologische Vereniging, Amsterdam, The
Schroeder, D. 1985. The search for effective biological control
agents in Europe. 1. Diffuse and spotted knapweed. Pages 103-119 in
E. S. Defosse, editor. Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium
for Biological Control of Weeds, 19-25 August 1984, Vancouver, Canada.
Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Canada.
Wäckers, F., P. van Rijn, and J. Bruin, editors. 2005. Plant-provided
food for carnivorous insects. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
UK, in press.
List of pointers to avoid common errors (See Guidelines
for and Common Errors in Literature Cited for a detailed description
of other common errors):
- Insert spaces between initials except in Washington, D.C.
- Last name appears first for first author; initial(s) first for subsequent
- Periods and commas associated with bold or italicized words or phrases
should also be bold or italicized.
- In journal citations, there is no space between the colon and the
- Books and conference proceedings must include publisher information:
name, city, state or province (if pertinent), country.
- Conference proceedings must include the city, state/province, country,
and year in which the conference was held. Conference dates are typically
included, although not required. The editor(s) of the Proceedings should
be included, if possible.
- Journal articles in press should include the volume number of the
journal even if the page range is not known.
All tables, figures, text appendices, videos, computer simulations, and
databases constitute attachments to the body text of the manuscript. As
such, they must be submitted as separate files to be handled properly
by our software. During the submission process you will be required to
select your attachment type from a drop down list, and type or paste its
associated caption – these steps are repeated until you have input the
captions for all of your attachments. You will then upload the attachment
files, and our software will generate a web page for each attachment based
on the file names and captions provided. Do not include captions or titles
in the attachment files themselves.
Equation files are not considered attachments. Please see the Equations
section below for information on how to format equations.
- Supply tables in rtf format.
- Tables are text files. Do not include images in the table.
- Ensure that row and column entries are denoted by cell divisions using the table function in the word processing software. That is, tabs, spaces or blank lines instead of table
cells to separate information will not work.
- Do not use horizontal or vertical lines to separate cells
- Do not use bold in column headings
- Do not include blank columns
- Single space all tables.
- Caption information is entered separately and should not appear in the table.
- Never repeat the same material in figures and tables; a figure is preferable.
- Do not include information in tables that is not discussed in the text of the manuscript.
- Figures are added during Step 5 of the submission process.
- Do not include title and caption information in the figure. This information is added separately.
- Figures must be in .GIF, .JPG, or .PNG formats.
- They must be clear and sharp
- the image will be printed at either 16 or 7.5 cm wide - text should be legible at that size
- Font must be large and legible at the smaller size; in Arial font.
- 72 dpi and no wider than 700 pixels (unless given explicit permission by the managing editor).
- We may ask you to supply high resolution, print-quality versions of your figures.
- Do not place a border around your figures
- Color figures must be legible when viewed in black and white.
- Use shaded, or hatched bars in preference to color or black ones.
- Initial upper case letters are preferred except where SI requires lower case letters for unit abbreviations (e.g., dbh, ln).
- Use italic lettering for single-letter variables, constants, and scientific names in illustrations to make them consistent with the text.
- Use bar graphs in preference to pie charts
Appendices are not copy edited nor formatted prior to publication so authors must ensure that their appendix is formatted correctly before acceptance.
Appendices must be upload as a PDF and formatted according the the journal's style unless they are models, databases, videos, or sound files.
The top margin of the appendix must be 4 cm.
Include a heading and caption in your pdf, where the heading "Appendix #." is left aligned and bold and the caption is Sentence Case.
Table and figure numbers in appendices should be keyed to the letter identifying that appendix: Fig. A1.1, for Figure 1 in Appendix 1; Table A2.3 for Table 3 in Appendix
2. Equations should be numbered similarly: A2.3, for Equation 3 in Appendix
2, and so on (see example).
are formatted with a double line above the heading, and single lines below
the heading and below the last table row (see
Enter all title and caption information when asked during
the submission process, and upload each appendix as a separate file.
All other non-text appendices, such as databases, video or sound files
may be uploaded using an appropriate filetype for the file contents. Appendices
should be labeled logically to indicate content (i.e. "Program#.filetype",
"Sound#.filetype"). Captions should describe the attachment fully (by
content, file format, usage, software required to run them, etc.) and
are uploaded separately during the submission process.
Online Resource and Agent Based Models
- The online resource attachment is intended for articles containing a computational model or some other online resource (e.g. video).
- We require Agent Based Models to be archived in openabm.org (see http://www.openabm.org for details),
- To allow reviewers and readers to evaluate the model, you will be required to provide the link during Step 5 -Supplementary Files of the submission procedure. (Select Attachement type "Online Resource").
EQUATIONS AND GREEK CHARACTERS
Insert a tag in the form <eqn#> into the body text of your manuscript
wherever you would like an equation to appear, where # = 1,2,3...n and
indicates the sequential number of the equation. Once you have uploaded
the body text, you will be prompted to upload your equation(s). Upload
each equation as a separate graphic file named eqn#.gif, where # corresponds
to the tags inserted into the body text. Any one equation may be specified
any number of times by inserting the appropriate tag in the manuscript
in multiple locations.
To include Greek characters in your manuscript please either use the
"Insert -- Symbol" feature in Microsoft Word, or write out the
full name of the Greek character and enclose the word in parentheses (e.g.,
<alpha>, <beta>) within the text of your manuscript
(click here for a complete list
of Greek characters and the associated full name).
Submission Preparation Checklist (All items required)
|•||This work has not been published elsewhere, nor is it at present being considered for publication by another journal. br> br>|
If either of these conditions apply, provide complete details in a covering letter (below) to the editors. Failure to notify the editors is grounds for rejection.
|•||I understand that Resilience Alliance is not for profit and charge a publication fee to offset costs of publishing articles that are freely available. As of 25 Oct. 2012 the base cost is $975/manuscript. br> br>|
*Authors submitting to a Special Feature may have their fees covered by a separate funding source. Please make sure you know whether your fees are covered.
|•||I understand that a manuscript longer than 5000 word will be subject to additional charges.|
|•||Use of figures and tables that have been published elsewhere is strongly discouraged.|
If use of such material simply cannot be avoided, the author MUST
- declare in a cover letter that such material is submitted
- receive written permission from the original publisher to use the materials in perpetuity (that is, without any time limit). You can download copyright permission forms at http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/submissions/publish.php and submit the completed form after your article is accepted for publication.
|•||The text adheres to the formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines (see About the Journal).|
|•||The text of the paper, and tables are in Rich Text Format (RTF). br> br>|
The main body of the text has no embedded figures, equations, or tables.
|•||Equations and figures, if present, are correctly referenced in the body of the paper. br> br>|
(Have individual image files of the equations and figures ready for upload.)
|•||If using an Agent-Based Model, the model has been archived with OpenABM (see http://www.openabm.org for details) |
OR I am NOT using an ABM.