Table 1. The categories used in the Thresholds Database to describe each example.

Title of ExampleShort title including description and location of the shift
Certainty of shiftProposed or demonstrated
LocationDetailed location of the example
System typeSocial–Ecological, Ecological or other
Ecosystem typeEcosystem type either where the change of state has occurred, or that is linked to the changed social state (e.g., forest)
Type of resource usePrimary use of the resource (e.g., livestock production)
Ecosystem servicesBenefits that people derive from the ecosystem (e.g., food, water)
Resource usersAgents who use the ecosystem services (e.g., subsistence farmers, fishers)
Ownership and user rightsType of ownership of the resource, or the rights of the users
Spatial scaleScale at which the shift has occurred
Number of possible regimesNumber of alternate regimes in the example
Time scale of changeTime taken for the shift to occur
ReversibilityReversibility of the state shift (e.g., irreversible, reversible with hysteresis)
BackgroundInformation relevant to the example (e.g., site description, history)
RulesLaws, regulations, norms or taboos that led to the regime shift
Alternate regimesAlternate regimes of the system
Fast or dependent variable(s)Variables of concern that are radically altered during the shift (e.g., species composition, productivity)
Slower or Independent Variable(s)Variables that lead to the shift and define the position of the threshold (e.g., phosphorus concentration)
Disturbance or threshold trigger(s)Variables that trigger the changes in the Slower or Independent Variables (e.g., climate change, market forces)
External / Internal Trigger(s)Are the triggers external drivers or internal processes?
MechanismProcess by which the triggers, fast/dependent variables and slower/independent variables interact to effect the shift
Management decisions in each regimeRelevant management or policy decisions, including incentives, subsidies, sanctions, and monitoring of the resource and resource users
Reference(s)Full references and codes for the type of evidence presented
KeywordsKeywords to aid searching