Fig. 3. All the possible interactions between social (S) and ecological (E) systems in relation to threshold shifts. Systems that have undergone a threshold shift to an alternate regime are split with a dashed line. The arrows within the boxes indicate that feedback mechanisms operate within the system. The arrows connecting the social and ecological systems show the direction of interaction between the systems in the development of regime shifts. Dashed arrows indicate that external influences may or may not contribute to the regime shift. The shaded categories are not included in the database, but are shown here for completion.

GIF Image (4 K)