Fig. 1. Possible kinds of changes in systems: (A) no regime shift, changes are continuous and smoothly reversible; (B) regime shift, but there are no alternate attractors (for example, the changes between ice and water in response to temperature); (C) regime shift with alternate attractors; (D) a class of regime shift involving three variables (for example, v1 = salmon stocks, v2 = temperature, and v3 = ocean currents), with no feedback from the dependent (v1) to the slow variable (v3).

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