Table 1. Key Māori-led cultural monitoring approaches in Aotearoa-New Zealand

Name of approach Specific examples Selected references
Taonga (e.g., flora and fauna) species sampling, monitoring reporting, harvesting Kōura (freshwater crayfish)
Tuna (eel)
Freshwater mussels


Native fish species such as Galaxiids spp., e.g., inanga, kôkopu, koaro

Plants such as kuta, raupô, harakeke, etc.
Kusabs et al. (2015a, b)
Williams et al. (2014)
Rainforth (2008)

Te Ao Marama Incorporated and Waikawa Whânau (2010)
Kitson et al. (2012)
Morris et al. (2013)

Kapa and Clarkson (2009)
Cultural habitats Mahinga kai, cultural harvest sites Maxwell and Penetito (2007); Stewart et al. (2014)
Contaminants Risk, customary resources NIWA (2016); Stewart et al. (2014)
Report cards 2016 Pilot Waikato River report card: methods and technical summary
Framework and methods guided by river iwi
Williamson et al. (2016)
The Cultural Health Index (CHI) for rivers and streams CHI method and application: has been used extensively by iwi/hapū groups to inform decisions, and provide knowledge to support collaborative processes

Adaptations have been made for freshwater and estuarine environments
Tipa (1999); Tipa and Tierney (2003, 2006a, b); Townsend et al. (2004); Pauling et al. (2007); Nelson and Tipa (2012); Tipa and Nelson (2012); Tipa and Associates (2013)

Young et al. (2002); Townsend et al. (2004); Taranaki District Council (2007); Hughey and Taylor (2009); Walker (2009); Harmsworth et al. (2011)
Baselines Cultural health assessment Pauling et al. (2005)
Cultural flow Cultural flow preference studies Tipa (2009, 2012); Tipa and Severne (2010); Tipa and Nelson (2012); Tipa and Associates (2013); Rainforth (2014)
Historic data and information Mapping of Māori values, historic places, cultural resources, etc. Harmsworth (1997, 1998); Tipa (2013)
Significance assessment method Significance assessment method for determining Māori values/tangata whenua river values Tipa (2010)
Tribal/regional state of environment reporting: State of Takiwâ A “toolbox” for iwi environmental monitoring and reporting: Te Waipounamu/South Island, developed by the iwi Ngai Tahu Mattingley and Pauling (2005); Pauling et al. (2007); TRONT (2003, 2007); Pauling (2010)
Wetlands National monitoring approaches and indicators of wetlands Harmsworth (2002)
Wetland habitats along the Waikato west coast, e.g., Toreparu wetland assessment approach Robb (2014)
Mauri assessments The Mauri model and “mauri o meter”
Morgan (2006, 2007a, b, 2015); Morgan et al. (2013)
Mauri of Waterways Kete and Framework Jefferies and Kennedy (2009)
The Mauri compass Ruru (2014, 2015)
Science and cultural indicators Linking cultural and science indicators Harmsworth et al. (2011)
Kaitiaki tools (guardianship tools) Kaitiaki tools: an Internet-based iwi resource management planning tool
NIWA (2016)
Ngā Waihotanga Iho (estuarine assessment tools) Ngā Waihotanga Iho: Iwi Estuarine Monitoring Toolkit Rickard and Swales (2009a, b)