Table 2. Population prevalence of wildlife species that have consumption-based taboos in the Makira Natural Park, Madagascar.

Consumption taboo Scientific name Population prevalence† IUCN status‡
Hornless zebu§ Bos indica (hornless version) 55.30% N/A
Hedgehog tenrec Setifer setosus 45.30% LC
Domesticated cat Felix catus 31.80% N/A
Chickpeas§ Cicer arietinum 28.60% N/A
Octopus Octopus cyanea 27.80% N/A
Blue coua Coua caerulea 23.20% LC
Indri Indri indri 23.10% CR
Eels 21.80% N/A
Crested drongo Dicrurus forficatus 19.90% LC
Bush pig Potamochoerus larvatus 18.70% LC
Insectivorous bats 18.20% N/A
Madagascar blue pigeon Alectroenas madagascariensis 17.50% LC
Flying fox Pteropus rufus 15.80% VU
Fern type Stenochlaena sp. 15.40% N/A
Taro leaves Colocasia esculenta 14.30% N/A
Madagascar magpie robin Copsychus albospecularis 13.90% LC
Eastern woolly lemur Avahi laniger 12.80% EN
Madagascan rousette Rousettus madagascariensis 12.50% NT
Malagasy coucal Centropus toulou 11.10% LC
Aye-aye Daubentonia madagascariensis 11.10% EN
Peanuts Arachis hypogaea 10.50% N/A
All round things§ 10.20% N/A
Green sea turtle Chelonia mydas 10.00% EN
Insect species Pyrops (Zanna) tenebrosa 9.30% N/A
Sharks and rays 9.70% N/A
All lemurs 8.90% N/A
White-fronted brown lemur Eulemur albifrons 8.60% EN
Ringtailed mongoose Galidia elegans 7.80% LC
Fosa Cryptoprocta ferox 7.70% VU
Eastern bamboo lemur Hapalemur griseus 7.70% VU
Red-bellied lemur Eulemur rubriventer 7.10% VU
Madagascar cisticola Cisticola cherina 7.00% LC
Spotted zebu Bos indica (spotted version) 7.00% N/A
Multiple species of saltwater fish (combined total) 6.70% N/A
Malagasy turtle dove Nesoenas picturatus 6.50% LC
Madagascar green pigeon Treron australis 6.20% LC
East African black mud turtle Pelusios subniger 5.70% LC
White mushrooms 5.60% N/A
Seal‛s sportive lemur Lepilemur seali 5.50% EN
Black and white ruffed lemur Varecia variegata 5.20% CR
Silky sifaka Propithecus candidus 5.00% CR
No taboo (fady) 7.00%
Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus 4.90% LC
Mouse lemurs Microcebus sp. 4.90% LC
Red ruffed lemur Varecia rubra 4.80% CR
Lesser Indian civet Viverricula indica 4.60% LC
Zebu kidney 4.40% N/A
Madagascar crested ibis Lophotibis cristata 4.20% NT
Dwarf lemurs Cheirogaleus sp. 3.80% N/A
Falanoka Eupleres goudoti 3.30% NT
Goats Capra sp. 3.00% N/A
Common tenrec Tenrec ecaudatus 3.00% LC
†Population prevalence is the percentage of surveyed male head of households who abide by particular taboos.
‡The Internation Union for the Conservation of Nature status of species is listed for those with information available (IUCN 2012). Lemur species were assigned a status based on the recent Red List updating from July 2012. LC = least concern, VU = vulnerable, EN = endangered, CR = critically endangered, N/A = not listed.
§See Golden and Comaroff (2015) for a description of why round items are a common taboo.