Table 2. Strategic objectives and main management actions proposed by participants for the Biscay social ecological system regarding the ecosystem services and human well-being variables. Common aspects are shown separately. ES = ecosystem services.

ES and human well-being variables Strategic objectives Main management actions proposed
Provisioning services Reinforce local sustainable productivity; improve the quality and variety of forest and agricultural products • More action is needed from governments and NGOs
• New financial mechanism will be created
• Local and sustainable production, as well as direct and responsible consumption will be promoted
• Incentives for eco-innovation and for the promotion of sustainable construction are needed
• The use of renewable energy will be promoted
• A strategic landscape management plan is needed to tackle this sustainability objective
Regulating services Conserve Biscay’s ecosystems and their functionality, and recover key autochthonous ecosystems • Changes in forest management and landscape planning are needed in an integrative and proactive way
• More coordination between policy makers and researchers is needed.
• Strategic and well-balanced planning is needed:
- Taking into account ecosystems multifunctionality
- Recognizing Biscay’s rich biodiversity and geodiversity heritage
- Including a well-balanced planning of the urban social-ecological systems
Cultural services Society owns technology and scientific knowledge and uses it to favor ecosystems functionality • Research and traditional knowledge recovery are essential
• Promotion of environmental education from early stages is a key aspect
• Scientific and local knowledge shall be spread to society through educational campaigns
• A strong link between natural heritage and cultural heritage is needed
Human well-being and other social variables Education, local participation, and knowledge society are key • An education more based in social and ethics values will be promoted
• Change in consumption habits and limits to squander are needed
• More planning is needed to guarantee a better connection between education and training to local employment needs.
• Leisure and aspects related to well-being will be dematerialized
• The possible impact on health will be assessed before taking any decision
• A social urbanism is proposed, in which different urban planning is performed and diverse land uses are mixed
Common aspects Proactive work is performed from local to global and vice versa • Coherence between policy and actions is needed: governments at different scales have an important role to play
• Reinforce public awareness on the importance of acting proactively for a more sustainable and responsible consumption
• A change in consumption habits is needed: consume less and of better quality. To achieve this objective, the importance of education is highlighted.
• Social and associative participation appear to be key pieces
• Internalization of environmental cost
• Promote natures’ nonmaterial goods
• Biscay's landscape diversification