Fig. 6. Three types of complexity face land managers: temporal, ecological, and social. Each of these complexities can be addressed using complementary tools: adaptive management, collaboration, and scenario planning. Adaptive management is well suited to responding to slow-moderate changes and to using the scientific process to address ecological questions. Collaboration addresses ecological complexity by increasing the breadth of knowledge available to land managers and stakeholders, while also improving outcomes where there are local and/or internal conflicts. Scenario planning provides a structure to aid land managers and stakeholders in anticipating more rapid, external, or large-scale changes that may impact the natural-resource system.

Fig. 6