Fig. 5. An example of nested resource management objectives. The concept of nested objectives is a theoretical innovation designed to reconcile adaptive managementís needs for measureable objectives, which are often formulated based upon past experience, with the threat that climate change could move this site into an ecological state with no historical analog. At the center of this diagram are core objectives that are crucial to multiple societal goals and that are intended to be met despite changes in climate or other conditions. Moving outward from the core, objectives become increasingly specific and the ability to meet them becomes increasingly dependent on assumptions of stationarity. Therefore, outer objectives may be outside of managersí control and might be considered conditional, to be modified as they become unachievable or conflict with other objectives. Within each circle are examples of shared goals and resource management objectives.

Fig. 5