Table 5. Potential key indicators.

Resilience perspective Candidate variables for key indicators of marine sector resilience
Ecological resilience
(capacity of ecosystems to absorb disturbance and maintain healthy habitats and biodiversity; important for supporting diverse ecological and social communities)
Status of key habitats
Availability of refuge habitat
Climate change impacts (extreme events, sea temperatures, catchment runoff, acidification, sea level rise)
Status of keystone species
Invasive species trends
Functional diversity and redundancy
Social resilience
(ability of individuals and groups to cope with and adapt to environmental and
social change and withstand shocks to their social infrastructure)
Consumer preferences
Public perceptions (e.g., of environmental decline, risk)
Social capital, networks, and trust
Social-ecological learning
Openness to and preparedness for change and innovation among resource users, decision makers, managers, and community
Education, experience, and training
Economic resilience
(policy-induced ability of a sector’s economy to recover from, adapt to, or avoid/withstand the effects of adverse economic and other shocks)
Buffering capacity (profitability, asset value, diversification)
Employment trends
External conditions (domestic and export markets, exchange rates)
Stock or tourism destination changes
Changes in resource harvest or visitor numbers
Industry impacts
Institutional resilience
(ability of institutions to withstand disturbances by providing both stability to reduce uncertainty and flexibility to respond to the uncertainties of changing external conditions§)
Power relations
Supportive policy environment (political will and leadership)
Institutional design (integrated governance and management, adaptive governance and management, monitoring, critical reflection processes, inclusiveness, flexibility)
Governance legitimacy
Viability of risk response (extreme events, strategies and plans, scenario planning)
Infrastructural resilience
(operators’ physical capacity to respond to and recover from disturbance or change in operating conditions)
Flexibility (gear, infrastructure, location)
Infrastructure longevity
Insurance protection
Replacement planning
Adger 2000
Briguglio et al. 2009
§Steinberg 2009, Herrfahrdt-Pähle and Pahl-Wostl 2012