Table 1. Ecosystem goods and services considered in the Mountland project.

Category Ecosystem good or service Indicator
Provisioning Food Wheat-equivalent units
Timber Harvested biomass (size and species of trees felled; t/ha)
Regulating Climate regulation t-CO2 equivalents from agriculture;
Carbon storage and fluctuations (aboveground carbon stored in forest biomass; t/ha);
Carbon content in soil, biomass, and basal respiration (t/ha)
Natural hazard protection General index for protection by forests against gravitational hazards;
Rock-fall protection;
Avalanche protection;
Landslip protection
Biodiversity (as a fundamental basis for other EGS) Habitat diversity Area of extensively used grassland (ha)
Landscape diversity Land-use-based Shannon Index for agriculture;
Shannon Index as a proxy for species richness at the landscape scale (γ-diversity)
Forest diversity Shannon diversity index;
Stand maturity index;
Capercaillie habitat quality index