Table 2. Summary of the response of ecological attributes to the vegetation treatments after two (2004) and seven (2009) years, with links to specific targets and overall goal for restoration (see Fig. 1 for relationships between the levels). The consequences for large-scale interventions are briefly elaborated, see text for more details. Presence of non-natives includes both the seeded Festuca rubra and the Deschampsia cespitosa, which occurred naturally in other sites the area, but act as an invader in alpine heath vegetation. Links between ecological attributes and the specific targets are slightly, moderately, or strongly negative,(−), − or − −, respectively, neutral (0) or slightly, moderately, or strongly positive, (+), + or + +, respectively.

Action (pilot) Relationship between ecological attributes and specific targets Treatment assessment Implications for the large scale restoration
Vegetation treatment Vegetation cover Species richness Presence of non-natives Linking targets and overall goal Present use
2004 2009 2004 2009 2004 2009
Stirred topsoil (C) (+) + (+) + + (−) (−) OK, but slow start. Basic treatment.
Stirred topsoil & fertilization (F) (+) + + + + No additional positive effect. Not used yet.
Stirred topsoil, fertilization, and seeding (FS) + + (+) + + − − − − Quick development of cover. Dominance of seeded species. Seeding of native species used in large sites.
Vegetation turf transplants 0 0 + + not tested not tested Positive effect on species richness. Basic treatment in narrow sites.