|Strategies and methods||Description||References|
|1) Facilitating knowledge building and utilization||Building/enhancing knowledge of the ecological resources.||Crona and Bodin 2006, Bodin and Crona 2008|
|Generate and integrate a diversity of ideas, viewpoints, and solutions.||Imperial and Kauneckis 2003, Marton-Lefèvre and Mehers 2007, Westley and Vredenburg 1997|
|Promote and steward experimentation at smaller scales (cf. active adaptive management).||Westley 2001, Olsson et al. 2006, Gunderson and Light 2006|
|Catalyze community awareness and social learning.||Stephenson 2010|
Conduct research, spread alternative ideas and
Font and Subirats 2010, Huitema and Meijerink
|2) Vision building||Provide a common vision that attracts a diversity of supporters upon which all can agree.||Westley and Mintzberg 1989, Folke et al. 2003, Olsson et al. 2004, Olsson et al. 2007, Biggs et al. 2010|
Creating new “social imaginaries” / create community
cohesion accross a set of macro level shared aspirations.
|3) Developing social networks||
Bridge different and similar actors and stakeholders across and within
organizational hierarchies and types. This could be divided into three
• Bonding, i.e., link with similar others. For example, establish local fishing organizations, knowledge exchange among local villagers, etc.
• Bridging, i.e., bring together similar and/or different groups to create momentum, gain support, and to react to various challenges. This could be called horizontal linking.
• Linking, i.e., communicate and engage with key individuals in different sectors, and to link across scales.
|Westley and Vredenburg 1997, Woolcock and Narayan 2000, Olsson et al. 2004, Ernstson 2008, Olsson et al 2006, 2007, Manring 2007, Biggs et al. 2010|
|Create and protect safe spaces for interaction.|
|Seek ways to bring all parties to respect the perspectives of all sides.||Stephenson 2010|
|Create opportunities for stakeholder involvement in management and research.||Franzen et al. 2011|
and multilayered coalitions with a borad range of social organizations.
Font and Subirats
2010, Huitema and Meijerink 2010, Meijerink and Huitema 2010
|4) Building trust, legitimacy, and social capital||Developing networks (bonding/bridging/linking social capital).||Hahn et al. 2006, Fell 2008, Bodin and Crona 2008, Biggs et al. 2010|
|Recognition of management initiatives by formal authorities.||cf. Ostrom 1990|
|Building consensus on rule compliance and representing stakeholder heterogeneity.||Stephenson 2010|
Mediating between organizations and the
|5) Facilitating / developing (social) innovations||Identification and introduction of new alternatives, processes, products, and options, and of new ways to conduct businesses.||Westley et al. 2006, Westley 1990, Bodin and Crona 2008|
building and innovations by bringing together different kinds of thinking.
||Huitema and Meijerink 2010|
|6) Preparation, mobilization for change||
Prepare the system to be able to effectively take advantage of forthcoming
opportunities for change (windows of opportunity), including:
• raising awareness of a resource challenge
• leveraging limited resources and find new sources of funding
• building vertical social capital to influence policy decisions
• linking innovative ideas to resource opportunities (“management up-down”)
|Bainbridge et al. 2000, Danter et al. 2000, Olsson et al. 2004, 2006, 2008, Westley et al. 2006, Gunderson and Light 2006, Pahl-Wostl 2007|
|7) Recognize or create and seize windows of opportunity||Timing when to connect and mobilize others, i.e. creating the right links at the right time around the right issues.||Westley 2002, Olsson et al. 2004, 2006, 2008, Gunderson and Light 2006|
|Willingness to take risks and convince others to take risks.||Huitema and Meijerink 2010|
Venue shopping: pitching right idea to
Font and Subirats 2010, Meijerink
and Huitema 2010, Wilder 2010
|8) Identifying and communicating opportunities for “small wins”?||Ability and capacity to identify (often small) projects upon which actors involved can agree.||Ostrom 1990, Hahn et al 2006, Wondolleck and Yaffee 2000|
|Reconceptualize issues. Able to take a whole system perspective, find leverage points in system.|
|9) Facilitate conflict resolution and negotiations||Imperial and Kauneckis 2003, Hahn et al 2006, Westley 2002|
|Fair and low cost conflict resolution.||Sudtongkong and Webb 2008|