Fig. 3. a) Model signed-digraph, b) Community matrix, and c) Prediction matrix for a simple system of three variables: nutrients (N), herbivores (H), and predators (P). Matrix elements (aij) were obtained from the signed-digraph and its negative (●) and positive (→) links. The prediction matrix indicates a positive disturbance (black arrow) that affects predators and shows the response of each member of the community to this disturbance (highlighted column).

Fig. 3