Table 1. Instruments in the two considered policy scenarios: “Protection” and “Payment for environmental services (PES).”

Protection PES

Market access
  Border protection (tarifs, import quotas) maintained at current levels reduced

Domestic support
Blue box
Payments per output (head / crops)
reduced abolished
Green box
Payments based on acreage (cross compliance) continued continued
Ecological payments (e.g., for less intensive land use) continued increased
Upkeep of wooded pastures: acreage payments for minimal stocking density absent introduced