Fig. 2. Degradation is a continuum of decline in ecosystem goods and services from primary forest to deforested lands. This continuum is illustrated for a generalized dry closed tropical forest. Biodiversity refers to species richness and ecosystem type richness relative to a baseline. Ecosystem services refers to services related directly to biodiversity such as pollination and biomass production. Sustainably managed forests are shown close to, but slightly below, primary forests based on multiple studies (e.g., Asner at al. 2006, Lewis 2009, Klimes et al. 2012; Putz et al. 2012).

Fig. 2