Table 1. Summary of elements necessary for the integration of resilience science, i.e., panarchy, adaptive management and adaptive governance, and reflexive law as applied to the Florida Bay example.

• Delineate scale: Managing for resilience entails characterizing ecological and governance scales, e.g., Florida Bay, State of Florida. Panarchy (Gunderson and Holling 2002) is a powerful tool for characterizing linked social-ecological systems.

• Identify critical slow variables: Because we have yet to develop the capacity to measure system resilience (but see Allen et al. 2005), “surrogates” should be developed when conducting resilience science (Carpenter et al. 2005). Resilience surrogates are based upon stakeholder assessments, models, historical profiling, and case studies (Carpenter et al. 2005).

• Identify scale-dependent ecological thresholds: Researchers should use models and scenario analysis to reveal processes that act to stabilize or destabilize a system, which could lead to identification of resilience surrogates (Carpenter et al. 2005). Examples of resilience surrogates include distance of a system variable from a system threshold; the rate at which a system variable is moving toward or away from a threshold; and external perturbations, e.g., shocks, controls, that could change the rate of change of a system variable (Bennett et al. 2005).

• Link those ecological thresholds to legal thresholds: The panarchy framework, when coupled with scenario analysis, nonlinear modeling, and leading indicators (Scheffer et al. 2012), should use a detailed analysis of a specific ecosystem to apply theory to real-world situations (Groffman et al. 2006). Intermediaries and local knowledge should also be tapped. This should allow governance to reflexively recalibrate the linked thresholds in an iterative manner based upon new information.