Table 5. Selection of social-ecological system attributes by their capacity for either resilience (adaptive maintenance) or transformation, grouped by system characteristics: identity, feedbacks, structure, and functions. The attributes in bold are the four identified in Walker et al.’s (2006) “Proposition 14: Determinates of Transformation”.

Type of change Identity Feedbacks Structure Functions
Adaptive maintenance, including transitions within existing (irrigated agriculture and farm-service) system Same as current status quo
Unified voice
Closed—networks strongly linked to internal nodes Rigidity in institution ideas and structure
Internal strength and redundancy within networks
Self-identity or confidence
Happiness: satisfaction with status-quo
Attributes common to both trajectories Fragile to a crisis, which stimulates change Modularity (nested networks)
Amount of capitals
Positive identification with existing community
Leadership: personal pro-activity
Transformation: capacity to envisage and support different purposeful system(s) Incentive to change
Different from status quo by scale, focus, and direction
Dissenting voices
Open—networks linked to external nodes, (cross-scale awareness) Groups driving change (internal or external)
Latent capitals
Flexibility in institutions
Capacity to identify new vision/goal
High innovation
Dissatisfaction with status-quo
Individual responsibility
Institutional desire to change