Table 2. Thematic analysis of passages with the explicit terms governance and ACM.

Theme Description # of Items # of Passages
ACM as governance ACM and governance are analogs. 9 22
Shift in governance ACM is situated in the context of the transition from government to governance. 1 1
Making governance operational ACM is a way to make governance operational and is a model, approach, strategy, method, system, or tool for governance. 26 53
Defining terminology ACM and governance are explicitly present in capturing the essence of an approach to environment/resource management. 8 10
ACM and good governance Good governance is connected to ACM and represents a ‘face’ of ACM. 6 13
Adaptive governance Adaptive governance enables ACM, is an objective of ACM, and/or represents the social dimension of ACM when examining ecosystems and landscapes. 15 28
Multilevel governance ACM stresses multilevel linkages and governance. Successful ACM requires polycentric, multilevel, people-centered, or participatory governance. 19 32
Linkages Governance and ACM are, or should be, closely connected. ACM acts as a bridge to connect governance with complex systems. 7 9
Enabling Governance enables ACM. 2 3
Features to enhance success ‘Good’ governance contributes to successful ACM. Governance and ACM are similarly enhanced by: (social) learning, trust building, institutional development, conflict resolution, empowerment, local stewardship involvement, social capital, nonstate actors, communication, power/empowerment, and/or decentralization. 18 32
Calls for further investigation ACM and governance require further investigation empirically, theoretically, and/or practically. Governance and ACM have not been studied deeply enough. 5 7
Common challenges ACM and governance are confronted with common challenges of politics, power sharing, policy experiments, and collaboration. ACM approaches can sometimes undermine local governance. 6 7
ACM is not a governance panacea ACM has the potential to fail as an approach to governance and depends upon the inclusion of key features and factors. Therefore, ACM is not a governance panacea. 7 11
No relationship given ACM and governance are mentioned in the same passage, but are not related to each other specifically. 18 41
Case studies Case studies and examples that address ACM and governance. 15 21
Total 55 290