Table 1. Summary of the arguments used to support and oppose the removal of four dams in Sweden in media coverage of the conflict, categorized by the frame type invoked.

Alby Hallstahammar Tallåsen Orsa
Frame Support Oppose Support Oppose Support Oppose Support Oppose
Fish migration routes†
Loss of pedestrian access; too little water for fish
Increase biological diversity; fish migration†
Loss of pedestrian access
Fish migration†; improve biotope
Negative effects of plants/animals in riparian zone
Nationally important species
Loss of productive river bottom and shallow bays
Risk of dam failure at high flow
High flow without dam unsafe for children
Dams are a damage protection measure
Less problems with property flooding
Creeks and small streams will dry up
Cultural: recreation
Loss of bathing place
Possible to introduce trout; stone pillars remain for fishing
Increase in angling and tourism
Loss of fish farmed for stream stocking; less recreation
Sport fishing; outdoor recreation
Salmon and grayling can migrate with current structure
Cultural: aesthetics
Loss of reflecting pond; views changed
Running water
Loss of reflecting pond and views
Free flowing water
“Naked muddy” stream banks; loss of reflecting pond
Cultural: heritage
Existed > 100 yr; village built around pond
Stones remain to mark dam locations
Cultural heritage of industrial area
Cultural heritage of mill, dam, power station
Save “old culture”
Restore “natural state”
Earlier judgments about water level should not be changed
Restore “natural stream environment”
Restore “natural stream”
No maintenance cost
Reduced cost
Repair too expensive; increased tourism
Loss of salmon hatchery
Tourism money
Support fish farming
†In the media coverage, fish migration routes are directly stated as the goal, which is considered a provisioning service resulting in increased fish populations. Note, however, that specific fish (e.g., brown trout) are mentioned as desirable, meaning that recreational fishing is the underlying goal, so the service could be considered cultural-recreation, even though the media does not present it as such.