Table 1. Characteristic information of the cases studied.

(case # as first digit in Table 2)
Canton Grisons Bern Bern Thurgau Aargau
Responsible gov. entity for river engineering Municipality Municipality Association of municipalities Canton Canton
Intensity of participation (as number of meetings and duration of stakeholder involvement) [estimation] Middle Low High High High
Year of trigger 1987 1995 1975 1987 1995
Kind of trigger Series of flood event, and rejection of permission (by canton) to further construct in a real estate area b/c of flood risk Decline of permission by canton to reconstruct the damaged flood prevention construction Severe flood event and announcement by insurance company to not cover future damages Series of flood events and decline of permission for the implementation of an existing plan by federation Series of flood events
Construction (starting year) 2000 2004
(1st leg)
(1st leg)
(1st leg)
Completion of construction 2004 2005 1995 2000 2008
# of years from trigger to first construction 13 10 13 11 11
River engineering measures 4000 m (river relocation) 1300 m (widening) 15 legs on a 15 km stretch A number of widening measures on a stretch of 7 km 2 flood control basins + stretches of widening
Project costs in CHF 28 Mio 2.6 Mio 30 Mio 10-15 Mio 15 Mio
Source: interviews