Table 2. The outcomes of frame analysis regarding definitions of scales and of the relationship between ecological and governance scales.

Frame 1 Frame 2 Frame 3
Definitions of scale Dominance of uni-disciplinary definitions and of theories and methods mainly from natural sciences (GR: 7; FIN: 8) Multidisciplinary definitions by combining theories of different disciplines (GR: 13; FIN: 12) Interdisciplinary definitions by integrating theories and methods of different disciplines (GR: 9; FIN: 9)
Scale as the level of biological organization (GR: 7; FIN: 8) Scale as the level of biological organization and as jurisdictional or/and administrative levels (GR: 13; FIN: 12) Coproduction of social and ecological scales (GR: 9; FIN: 9)
Scale as the extent and resolution of data and study regions (GR: 7; FIN: 8) Scale as the extent and resolution of studies and of administrative regions (GR: 13; FIN: 12) Scale as encompassing both a technical dimension and a social construction (GR: 4; FIN: 6)
Scale as objective jurisdictional or/and administrative levels (GR: 3; FIN: 5) Jurisdictional scale as the most important scale – the problems and solutions emerge there (GR: 13; FIN: 12) Administrative or/and jurisdictional scale as geographically, historically shaped (GR: 9; FIN: 8)
Scale as a technical term or/and as measurement (GR: 5; FIN: 5) Scale as distinct, hierarchically organized levels (GR: 13; FIN: 12) Scale as coevolution of hierarchical structures and occurring social-ecological processes (GR: 6; FIN: 8) -
Scale as a neutral, mainly scientific term (GR: 7; FIN: 8) Scale as having analytical fixity (GR: 13; FIN: 12) Scale as a non neutral concept (GR: 8; FIN: 8) – Interactions within the levels of a scale are dynamic (GR: 6; FIN: 5)
Relationship between ecological and governance scales No explicit links (GR: 7; FIN: 8) Indirect links (GR: 13; FIN: 12) Direct links (GR: 9; FIN: 9)
Acknowledgment of interactions between different levels of ecological scale and between ecological, spatial and temporal scales (GR: 7; FIN: 8) Acknowledgment of interactions across various levels of ecological or governance scales (GR: 13; FIN: 12) Acknowledgment of dialectical interactions between and within different scales (GR: 9; FIN: 8) - Explicit references to cross-scale and cross-level interactions (GR: 7; FIN: 7)
Social and natural scales are both acknowledged as significant but not as directly linked (GR: 7; FIN: 6) Biodiversity governance should find an optimal solution to match conservation efforts with human and ecological scales (GR: 13; FIN: 12) Active role of people in producing geographical scales (GR: 7; FIN: 7) – Scaling should reflect thoroughly integrated social-ecological settings (GR: 7; FIN: 6)