Table 4. Main objectives and basic principles of the four forest management alternatives compared in the MCRA

FMAs Objectives Principles
Close to nature Mimic or emulate natural processes Natural regeneration, mixed stands, no site preparation or thinnings, long rotation length, selection harvesting
Combined objectives Combine production and ecological objectives at the stand level Natural regeneration, mixed stands, site cultivation, and thinnings, rotation length adapted to optimal wood productivity, harvesting limited to solid wood
Intensive even-aged Optimize wood production Plantation, monocultures, even-aged structure, site preparation, cultivation, fertilization, regular thinnings, rotation length adapted to the economic return, clearcut harvesting
Wood biomass Produce the greatest amount of wood biomass Plantation, monocultures, even-aged structure, fast-growing species, site preparation, cultivation, fertilization, short rotation, clearcut harvesting, removal of residues