Fig. 1. Evaluation of current forest management in different regions of Europe using 12 decisions on silvicultural operations and an intensity grade from passive (1) to intensive (5). Case studies are (a) Białowieża National Park, Poland; (b) European beech in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany; (c) mixed forests dominated by Norway spruce in northern Sweden; (d) Sitka spruce forests in Scotland, and (e) Eucalyptus in Portugal.

Fig. 1