Fig. 3. Results of the principal component analysis based on a subset of Table 3 indicators. Upper panel: the differences between FMAs across all considered functions could be summarized in two dimensions, with PC1 explaining 66% of the variation in the indicator set, and PC2 explaining 20%. Lower panel: the PC loadings of the individual indicators grouped for each service—productive functions (diamond), carbon (triangle), nutrients/acidification (shaded square), water (open diamond), and biodiversity (dot). Abbreviations of the factor loadings: (MAIu) mean annual increment; (LEV2%) and (LEV5%) land expectation value at 2% and 5%; Clive), (Cdead), and (Charv) C stock in living, dead, and harvested biomass; (Pbal) P balance; (Bcharv) acidification due to harvesting; (Nacid) potential acidification due to nitrate leaching; (H2O) water runoff; (NO3−) nitrate in runoff; (FWD and CWD) fine and coarse woody debris; (T60) trees with >60 cm dbh; and (TSP) number of tree species.

Fig. 3