Table 1. Examples of policies that could nurture DFS

Financial reforms: ensure adequate financial support of DFS through diverse public and private sources; impose carbon taxes on fossil fuel inputs to discourage long-distance transportation and agro-chemicals; impose toxicity taxes on chemical inputs.

Regulatory reforms: make and enforce rules to internalize environmental and social costs while avoiding disproportionate costs for smaller farmers; design food safety regimes that allow diversified farming; harmonize regulations to reduce costs of compliance by diversified farmers.

Planning and land-use changes: use municipal zoning to remove development pressures on peri-urban diversified farms; encourage farming within urban areas; foster landscape-scale planning.

Infrastructure development: build local processing plants and local food aggregation systems and strengthen direct marketing systems to better meet the needs of diversified farming and counter agri-business power over supply chains.

Procurement and nutrition support: preferences for DFS in government purchasing and expansion of nutrition and public health programs to include DFS-sourced foods.

Antitrust enforcement: curb monopolistic and oligopolistic power (“food trusts”) in food supply chains; weaken market concentration and retailer control across all food categories.

Campaign finance controls: eliminate unrestricted political donations; prevent agri-business corporations from contributing to political action committees.

Farm Bill reforms: redirect publically financed subsidies for industrialized agriculture to support sustainable agriculture and DFS at the landscape scale.

Sources: Pretty 1995, Buttel 2006, NAS 2010.