Table 1. Timeline of key oil spill-relevant CSR initiatives and international mandatory regulation.

Voluntary CSR initiative
Mandatory government regulation
1969 Tanker Owners’ Voluntary Agreement concerning Liability for Oil Pollution (TOVALOP)
1969 International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (CLC)
1970 Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF)
1971 International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage (FUND)
1974 Offshore Pollution Liability Agreement (OPOL)
1973 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships (MARPOL, in force from 1983)
1993 Ship Inspection Report Programme (SIRE)
1974 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)
1997 Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)
1992 MARPOL Amendment on Prevention of Pollution by Harmful Substances Carried by Sea in Packaged Form
2005 Oil and gas industry guidance on voluntary sustainability reporting
2003 MARPOL Amendment on Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from Ships