Table 1. Smyth et al.’s (2006) nine cultural domains and elements applied to classify the cultural value of Torres Strait marine species.

Cultural domain Cultural elements
1. Subsistence food source
Dietary preferences, desired, required (consumed and not consumed)
2. Material application
Use as bait, pet, container, tool or trade item, use of feathers, shell, bone, tooth, skin for ornamentation, body jewelry, masks, dancing paraphernalia, head gear, fish traps, sacred sites
3. Subsistence skills
Procurement, preparation, exchange and trade, e.g., hunting, fishing, collecting techniques, butchering, distribution, cooking, presentation
4. Wisdom
Environmental knowledge about behavior, habitat, place locality, season, moon phase, tide, current, wind
5. Socio-political representation
Totem and identity, e.g., connected to social groups, clans, and tribes; naming of cultural sites, e.g., seascape and territory
6. Mythological representation
Story, myth, legend, folktale
7. Ritual representation
Ceremony, ritual, magic, beliefs
8. Symbolic representation
Constellations, rock art, music, song, story, dance, technical arts
9. Contemporary representation
Utilization by institutions, e.g., fisheries, Torres Strait Treaty, schools, teams; politics, e.g., flags; commercial utilization