Fig. 3. A conceptual model showing how human impacts and modifying actions (1–5) and underlying social system structural traits (A–E) mediate ecosystem conditions in coral reefs. Social system structural traits and their attributes (III) are fundamental to the duration, timing, and intensity of proximate human impacts and modifying actions (II) on coral reef ecosystem structure and function (I). Exogenous and endogenous factors influence the internal dynamics of underlying social systems (A–E) and the relationship between underlying and proximate factors. The globalization of socioeconomic systems can decouple environmental feedbacks that provide a structuring influence on human relationships with coral reefs. Management interventions that are primarily developed through governance systems, but which are affected by a suite of social system structural attributes, can also modify the portfolio of human interactions with reef systems.