Table 1. Resilience concepts from the more narrow interpretation to the broader social–ecological perspective.

Resilience concepts Characteristics Focus on Content
Engineering resilience
Return time, efficiency
Recovery, constancy
Vicinity of a stable equilibrium
Ecological/ecosystem resilience and
social resilience
Buffer capacity, withstand shock,
maintain function
Persistence, robustness
Multiple equilibria, stability landscapes
Social-ecological resilience
Interplay of disturbance and reorganization, sustaining and
Adaptive capacity
transformability, learning,
Integrated system feedback,
cross-scale dynamic interactions
Adapted from Folke (2006); Badjeck (2010, personal communication)