Table 2. Comparisons of adaptive capacity elements with dimensions of Grand Ronde culture through adaptive cycle states from narrative sources.

Adaptive Cycle States
Economy & Ecology
Society & Polity
Ideology & Knowledge
Grand Ronde: precontact—living in the conservation phase.
portfolio of aquatic & terrestrial resources and sovereignty over these territories
26 tribes operating as independent units with their own social and governance systems
believing themselves to be part of natural systems
Grand Ronde: reservation—experiencing release and reorganization
individual income as small farmers and low-wage, logging, and farm labor jobs.
emergency of tribal social organization and governance
dominant culture devaluing of their cultural ideas & knowledge
Grand Ronde: restoration—exploitation and conservation
casino on sovereign lands and diversification of economic portfolio
more formalized tribal governance and polity
creation of synthetic language & culture
Narrative synthesis
sovereignty over ecological opportunities and creation of economic portfolios
leadership, vision and partnerships to affect actions within and between groups
ecological knowledge and the values to apply that knowledge