Table 2. Pre-1972 oil spill resilience.

Anticipation Reduced
Response Recovery

Formal Resilience
Government safety inspections biological analysis postspill legislation
close field legal inquiry
dispatch officials to observe
Corporate organization with response capabilities containment devices control fire and leak beach clean up
oil spill drills sea surface skimming, burning, dispersant, boom petition government to reopen leasing
“chokes” (blowout preventers)

Oil Spill Inherent Resilience
buyers refuse oysters from contaminated areas law suits
fish elsewhere regulate harvest
personal economic diversification local funds for restoring oyster beds
family aid family aid
file for unemployment
Sources: This table relies on sources cited in the text and organizes oil spill related actions according to Wilbanks’ (2008) four elements of resilience.