Table 1. All-hazards inherent resilience before 1970.

Anticipation Reduced Vulnerability Respond Recovery
relocate inland relocate inland shift fisheries to safe areas local fishing/hunting season limits
request state studies of ecological damage buyers exclude tainted catch law suits
family aid family aid
personal economic diversification file for unemployment
suppress negative news local funds for restoring fisheries
local funding to rebuild houses
Sources: This table organizes oil spill related actions using Wilbanks’ (2008) four elements of resilience. It was prepared using local ethnographic and disaster response literature and primary sources that document coping practices following past coastal disruptions. The sources include: Fogelman 1958, Bates et al. 1963, Plaquemines Parish Council Records 1970, St. Bernard Parish Council Records 1970, Comeaux 1972, Burley et al. 2007, Colten and Sumpter 2009, Burley 2010, Colten 2011, Colten and Giancarlo 2011, and Theriot 2011. Reviews of the following newspapers for their coverage of the spills also provided important historical information: Galveston Daily News, Houston Chronicle, Lake Charles American Press the New Orleans Times Picayune, and the Plaquemines Gazette.