Table 1. The six stakeholder groupings identified during the course of the interviews.

Stakeholder grouping In-text reference History and interaction in MDCA
Inter- viewees (no.)
University of Cape Town staff The University of Cape Town was partially responsible for instituting the comanagement process in 1999, and has since been a long-term comanagement partner, and is responsible for administering MDCA funds from donor organizations.

City of Cape Town conservation staff (on-ground and management)

City of Cape Town conservation City of Cape Town conservation staff have been involved in comanagement arrangements since 2004 when formal on-the-ground management of Macassar Dunes was instituted.
City of Cape Town strategic planning staff City of Cape Town planning City of Cape Town Planning authorities were partially responsible for instituting comanagement arrangements, and contracted the University of Cape Town to undertake the pilot comanagement process in 1999. Planning authority staff were involved in comanagement until around 2006, when new City of Cape Town administrative borders were instituted. Essentially, conservation staff replaced planning staff representation on MDCA.

Cape Flats Nature staff A government/civil society partnership to support “people-centered” biodiversity conservation. Cape Flats Nature has been involved in the comanagement arrangements since 2004, in partnership with the City of Cape Town Conservation.

Members of the Macassar community
Members of the Khayelitsha community, including residents of eNkanini informal settlement
Macassar members
Khayelitsha members
Both Macassar and Khayelitsha communities have been target communities of the comanagement process since its inception in 1999.

eNkanini residents have played a crucial role in the comanagement process since the “creation” of eNkanini informal settlement in 2004, because their land claim action sparked a revitalization of collaborative efforts at Macassar Dunes. However, formal interaction of eNkanini residents with the MDCA Management Committee has been only relatively recent.

Under apartheid, Macassar residents were classified as “Coloured”, whilst Khayelitsha (and eNkanini) residents are predominantly recognized as “African” or “Black”. These classifications, whilst problematic and complex, are still very present in South African discourse, and residents from these areas are still widely referred to in such terms by the comanagement partners. Nonwhite South African communities are also commonly referred to as “previously disadvantaged”, referring to apartheid and historical legacies of inequality and oppression.