Table 2. General characteristics of the twelve watersheds considered in this study.

Basin Name Scale Population (millions) River Length (km)/ Basin Size(km2) Primary water uses Major water resource issues
Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint Interstate (Alabama, Florida, Georgia) 6 (most in Atlanta, GA) 843/
Urban and agricultural water supply, fisheries Adequate timing and quantity of river flow
Columbia International
(British Columbia, Idaho, Oregon Washington, Montana)
3.7 2000/
Hydropower, irrigation, water supply, navigation and recreation “Most dammed river system in the world”, flooding, impact of dams upon fisheries (endangered salmon)
Crocodile International
(South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique)
0.6 320/
Irrigation, tourism, wildlife conservation Water scarcity and human poverty
Fraser Provincial (British Columbia) 3.3 1375/
Salmon fisheries, irrigation, urban water supply, transportation, recreation Estuarine water quality, Flooding, Negative impacts to fisheries (endangered salmon)
Hudson Interstate
(5 states, 93% in NY)
8 508/
Urban water supply, irrigation Contaminated sediments, water quality, invasive species (water chestnut, zebra mussels)
King’s Bay & Crystal River Regional/Local
(1 county, Florida)
0.1 11/
Urban water supply, Conservation/tourism Water quantity and quality in King’s Bay; invasive aquatic macrophytes; endangered manatee
Ocklawaha Regional
(5 counties, Florida)
0.3 177/
Urban and agricultural supply, recreation Channelization, water quality (nitrogen and phosphorus), invasive macrophyte species
Peace Regional
(4 counties, Florida)
0.8 241/
Phosphate mining, urban and agricultural supply Saltwater intrusion, water quantity/quality in Charlotte Harbor
Sacramento Regional
2.0 719/
Urban and agricultural water supply Water quantity and quality (esp. salinity, mercury), flooding
St. Mary’s Interstate
(Georgia, Florida)
0.01 209/
Industry, agriculture, commercial and recreational fishing Water quality (industrial effluents, septic tanks)
Suwannee Interstate
(Georgia, Florida)
0.3 394/
Agriculture/silviculture, recreation Water quality (nitrates)
Zambezi International
(8 countries, especially Zambia, Zimbabwe)
32 4400/
1.4 million
Hydroelectricity, mining, subsistence agriculture, wildlife conservation Severe poverty, disrupted flow/ sedimentation regime due to 86 dams