Table 1. Adaptive cycles in vegetation types (recognized within Natura 2000) of the Tremalzo case study.

Adaptive cycle phases
K - conservation
Measure of capital
Ω - release or collapse
Factors decreasing capital and connectedness
α – reorganization
Factors contributing to reorganization (resilience or transformation)
r – growth
Factors involved in re-establishment of capital and connectedness
Driving forces toward system shifting
Fast cycle - High Alpine vegetation

(Tremalzo example: 8210)

• Maximum number of desired vegetation attributes for conservation objectives, e.g., Max no. of valued species for conservation objectives (described in Natura 2000)
• Minimum number of undesirable vegetation attributes for conservation objectives
• Loss of valued attributes, e.g., key species, due to: erosion, nutrient addition, overgrazing • Lack of weed species
• Protection key species
• Establishment of Malga rules or their application
• (Factors as in α – phase)
• High level of ecological knowledge
• Natural and man-made erosion and debris
• Long-term climate changes
Medium speed cycle – Malga grassland
(Tremalzo example: 6170, 6210§, 6230|)
• Max no. of desired vegetation attributes
• Desired vegetation structure for both conservation and agricultural objectives
• Minimum number of undesirable vegetation attributes
• Loss of valued attributes, e.g., key species through: over/under grazing
• weed species colonization
• abandonment of Malga pastures
• breakdown of land use rules, loss of skills in applying the rules
• lack/loss of ecological knowledge in pasture use
• Protection/survival of palatable species and key Natura 2000 species through appropriate grazing
• Socioeconomic supports to Malga managers
• Re-establish Malga regime
• Community agreement on resource utilization proportionate to natural productivity
• Management regimes: low grazing, abandonment, or high intensity grazing
(Natura 2000 codes) Calcareous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation.
Alpine and subalpine calcareous grasslands.
§ Seminatural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates (important orchid sites).
| Species-rich Nardus grasslands, on siliceous substrates in mountain areas (and submountain areas in Continental Europe).