Table 5. Concise results from testing the toolkit at Umngazi estuary and the Tyolomnqa estuary workshops.

Umngazi Estuary Tyolomnqa Estuary
Representatives present:
National government Yes National Environmental Department No N/A
Provincial government Yes Provincial Development Agency Yes Provincial Conservation Department
Local government Yes Local Municipality Yes Local Municipality
Private business interests Yes Hotel representative, horse trail guide No N/A
Nongovernmental organizations No N/A Yes Wildlife and Environmental Society of South Africa
Community representatives Yes Umngazi Community Yes Tyolomnqa Community
Tribal authorities No N/A N/A N/A
Research/academic institutions Yes Two South African Universities, Water Research Commission Yes South African University, Water Research Commission
Step 1: Possible estuary-based enterprises (where there is high supply and low demand, low supply and high demand, or high supply and high demand for services) Bird watching, Block making, Restaurant, Bee keeping, Crayfish factory, Sand mining, Craft production, Horse trails, Canoe trails,
Village accommodation (as part of a destination package),
Labor intensive government funded estuary rehabilitation program
Seaweed harvesting, Residential settlements, Fishing, Boating, Canoeing (races and recreational), Wilderness camp, Brick making, 4X4 trails
Steps 2 and 3: Priority enterprises determined through discussion on current, desired and conflicting roles
Canoe trails, Horse trails, Village-based tourist accommodation, Labor intensive government funded estuary rehabilitation program
Boating, 4X4 trails, Wilderness camp
Step 4: Chosen enterprise for risk assessment Village-based tourist accommodation Wilderness Camp
Main risks Mitigation Main risks Mitigation
Communication difficulties Establish internet linkages with the nearby established hotel Intensity of users is controlled by provincial and national government departments that lack regulating capacity Improve regulatory capacity of provincial and national government departments. However this is unlikely to occur in the short term
Because tourists like being close to the beach, communities located inland are less likely to benefit from tourists Sell a package that includes visiting the beach Poor legislation implementation has resulted in poor water quality standards because of informal settlements being located near the estuary, and the nearby waste water treatment works not being adequately maintained Improve maintenance of waste water treatment works and establish formal sanitation for the informal settlements. However, limited funds are available
Declining quality of attractions due to sand mining Improve community awareness of the importance of a healthy ecosystem, and the long-term consequences if sand mining continue Access to the estuary is limited and security is poor Remove illegal fencing along the estuary and improve security presence. However, limited funds are available for these operations
Approximately 50% of the river has been transformed and as a result bank stabilization for development has caused habitat destruction Municipality to take back control of the banks and rehabilitate. However, limited funds are available for this operation