Table 4. Risk Assessment (source: Bowd et al. 2012).

Relationships Nature of the risk
Relationship between resources users
Could some resource users deplete the resource and are they reliant on the resource, thus making it difficult to change patterns of use? Resource depletion
Are there current conflicts between and/or within the different user groups? Inability to manage excessive resource utilization
Is the resource and its available services located within a clearly defined spatial boundary that can exclude users without legal rights? Cannot enforce the right of exclusive use by owners
Are the people with rights to resource use a clearly defined group separate to those without rights of resource use? Cannot enforce the right of exclusive use by owners
Does everybody in the community with user rights participate in the resource use? Unequal incentives for community to manage the resource
Are there good relationships between all the users who have a right of use? Prohibitive transaction costs in establishing resource management
The infrastructure, economic, social, and institutional assets available
To what extent is the built infrastructure developed and maintained? Poor quality infrastructure can limit access
Considering current infrastructure, is user safety secure all year round? Threat to personal security
Does the built infrastructure meet current demand for access (the type, size, and quality of infrastructure)? Unsatisfactory access to the site
What are the levels of skills (education, knowledge, communication, hospitality) among the resource users? Inadequate skills to anticipate and resolve problems
What are the levels of skills (education, knowledge, communication, hospitality) among the resource managers/government? Inadequate skills to anticipate and resolve problems
How adaptable are the resource users to (i) changes in the availability of the resource; (ii) changes in demand; (iii) pursuing other activities to sustain livelihoods, etc.? Poor adaptability to change
What rules of law (local, provincial, national, international) are applicable to the resource users? Partial application of laws
To what extent are these rules of law enforced? Uncertainty for investors and users regarding their investments
To what degree are cellular, telephone, email, and fax facilities available to the resource users; and to what degree are these facilities necessary? Poor communications - no access to market
Resources for management
To what degree is government contributing to the management of resource users with regard to: (i) the resource; (ii) research; (iii) infrastructure; (iv) skills/knowledge; (v) security; (vi) communication? Public services not being supplied to management - with risks to resource depletion
Impact of infrastructure on resource levels
What are the impacts of (i) knowledge/skills; (ii) infrastructure; (iii) security/governance; and (vi) communication on the resource? Depleted resources
Policy implications
What policies are applicable to the resource users and what implications do these policies have on the resource users? Lack of investors
To what extent do these policies give (i) adequate protection to the resource; (ii) give adequate security, i.e., access, availability, of the resource to the resource users? Diminished access to resources
Integrated implementation of developments
Are there conflicts between government actions and/or government infrastructure? Reduced or limited access to enterprise inputs
Monitoring the state of the asset
To what extent is the state of the resource monitored and who is responsible for this monitoring? Inadequate knowledge for effective resource management
Is there evidence of monitoring, and if so to what extent, are the findings of any monitoring efforts used to evaluate management, and thus influence future actions (adaptive management)? Management is not responsive to changes
Comanagement of built or natural assets
How adequate is the cooperation between the resource users and government to manage the (i) built environment; (ii) social/cultural environment; (iii) natural environment? Poor operating environment for enterprise - heightened uncertainty for entrepreneurs
Can upstream resource users, who may influence the ecosystem functioning, and therefore the supply levels of services, be excluded or influenced? Asset can be run-down - with diminish services availability
Capacity and competency to implement policy
What policies are applicable to public and private infrastructure and to what degree are these policies implemented? No support for enterprises from government
Intergovernment communication
Is there sufficient communication between different government tiers and departments? High costs to do business
Droughts, floods, changes in supply of resource services
What is the nature of severe biophysical impacts on the resource and what is the significance and frequency of these impacts? Inability to supply services demanded
Disregard for resource fluctuations
To what degree do resource users plan for fluctuations, and is this planning adequate? Insufficient revenue to cover costs
Droughts, floods, wash-aways, destroyed communications
To what degree do external shocks damage public infrastructure with regards to: knowledge, skills, aids, natural disasters, over exploitation of resource, establishment or nonmaintenance of infrastructure, communication? Prevention of clients accessing the enterprise site or threats to user safety
To what degree are these external shocks managed/prepared for, i.e., insurance, forward planning? Insufficient revenue to cover costs
Poverty and affluence - over use and exclusion
To what extent does poverty and/or affluence influence/affect overuse and exclusion of the resource? Asset can be run-down, diminish services
Can one user group’s actions reduce the levels of services available to a different user group? Asset can be run-down, diminish services
Do high transaction costs exclude key stakeholders from the decision making process? Unequal incentives to manage the resource
Conflict, crime, uncertainty, changes in demand
Are there social and economic forces, such as conflict, crime (internal and external), and interest rates which can limit the demand by the resource users? Reduced numbers of clients
Have the rules of resource use and benefit sharing been understood and agreed to by all people who have rights of use before use commences? Effort can be unrewarded - abandonment of enterprise
Increased use pressures
Are there external social and economic forces, e.g., water provision, housing, creating pressure on available infrastructure that impacts on natural resource-based enterprises? Asset can be run-down, diminish services
Effectiveness of governance
Does government have capacity/skills to cope with social and economic shocks to resource linked assets (resource, access, infrastructure)? Prevention of clients accessing the enterprise or threat to personal safety or security
Are the rules of access and management duties well understood by all resource users? Asset can be run-down, diminish services