Table 9. Example best practices of acm study design elements to derive comparative insights

Best Practice Illustrative Examples
Well-defined resource system (bounded) within which relationships among phenomena can be tested Charles 2007, Olsson et al. 2007, Evely et al. 2008
Clear definition of core concept(s) being examined Fisher et al. 2007, Kofinas et al. 2007, Schultz 2009
Specificity of goal(s) or clear intention of focus (e.g., process, attribute) with regard to desired outcomes in system of concern Garaway and Arthur 2004, Bodin and Norberg 2005, Folke et al., 2005, Guidetti and Claudet 2010
Explicit criteria to assess goal(s) and/or intention of focus Plummer and FitzGibbon 2007, Guidetti and Claudet 2010, Muñoz-Erickson et al. 2010
Clear evidence of outcomes attributed to specific processes or attributes Bodin and Norberg 2005, Fisher et al. 2007, Cundill and Fabricius 2010, Guidetti et al. 2010
Rigorous and transparent methods that enable replication Bodin and Crona 2008, Fisher et al. 2007, Cundill and Fabricius 2010, Guidetti and Claudet 2010