Table 2. Component or variables of interest emerging within adaptive comanagement

Component or Variable Description No. of Items No. of Passages
Bridging Organizations Bridging organizations/institutions are intermediaries (not individuals), and attention in this theme is on the role played by these bodies. Attention is given to how they support interface with other variables (e.g., learning, trust, networks, linkages) and catalyze ACM. Functions of “boundary organizations” or “brokering organizations” are included. 19 57
Conflict Conflict encompasses tensions arising between/among the individuals and organizations in ACM. Sub-themes include: conflict resolution, mechanisms to resolve conflicts, opportunities associated with conflicts. 40 79
Enabling Conditions Enabling conditions include circumstances central to developing and/or sustaining the ACM process. Sub-themes include: legislation or policy, the role of government, funding. Myriad other conditions emerged within the sub-theme “other,” with many referring to other variables. 42 89
Incentives Incentives encompass things that incite, sustain, or truncate ACM. The general notion of incentives is identified as being important to ACM and as an unconditional catalyst (both monetary and non-monetary). Additional sub-themes focus on rewards and punishments contingent on specific achievements/behaviors. 21 35
Knowledge The information/skills/expertise/experiences/worldviews that individuals and organizations bring to ACM and their associated uses and influences are encapsulated in the theme knowledge. Numerous sub-themes emerged in association with knowledge, such as: combination of knowledge, types of knowledge, information forms and functions, communication of knowledge, control of knowledge, and knowledge in relation to other variables. 83 344
Leadership The act of leading or emergence of guiding (by an individual or organization) emerged as the theme of leadership. Its presence or absence was typically connected with the success or failure of ACM and key associated characteristics discussed. 39 116
Learning Learning broadly concerns how knowledge is gained and employed in relation to ACM. Attention is also given to the influence of the learning process on ACM as well as its interaction with other variables. The sub-theme of social learning emerges with considerable strength (81 items, 400 passages). Other sub-themes include: experiential learning, monitoring and evaluation, and transformative learning. 94 687
Networks Networks capture the connections (structurally and functionally) between and among the entities, and the theme emerges frequently as being important to ACM. Sub-themes include the features of networks (e.g., cross-scale, multi-level), the type of networks (e.g., formal, informal), and relationship to other variables (e.g., social capital, learning, knowledge). 69 325
Organizational Interactions Organizational interactions consider links between and among organizations (formal and informal). Sub-themes include: the nature of these links (horizontal and vertical), the extent to which they cross scales and levels, the fit with ecosystems, and their consequences (e.g., enhance fit). 64 206
Shared Power Shared power is a foundational premise of ACM and often considered a structural element. The theme is often employed in a general sense to convey the collective ability to influence or exert authority. Sub-themes include: empowerment, devolution of power (decentralization), and emphasis on property rights. 54 234
Shared Responsibility Shared responsibility refers to the collective sharing of obligations for a resource or environmental consideration. Incorporation of rights and transfer of responsibilities are common considerations. 33 74
Trust Trust focuses on the relationship between and among people. Trust is considered as a key influence on success or failure of ACM. It is examined within case studies and highlighted as a critical link in building cross-scale and cross-level links. 49 126