Table 3. Description of different policy measures presently incorporated in the Scheldt model suite.

Policy measure Description Source for quantification
(1) Business as usual Current land-use practice and increased manure processing plant investments are included. Broekx and De Kok (2010)
(2) 50% cattle stock reduction Because agriculture is the major source of diffuse nutrient loading to the surface water system, implementing a reduction in stocking density and nutrient application rates will have an effect on nitrogen loading. De Wit (2001), Pieterse et al. (2003)
(3) 50% reduction in fertilizer and manure applications See (2)
(4) 40% improvement in waste water treatment efficiency Waste water treatment facilities in the Scheldt catchment are currently being improved, and the proportion of households that are connected is being increased CIW (2008)
(5) Implementation of buffer strips Buffer strips along receiving streams are considered a potentially useful means to achieve nutrient retention. This measure involves wholesale implementation of buffer strips along agricultural lands bordering streams. These are taken out of agricultural exploitation but not bought from the owner. A proportional retention of 57% is derived based on a median buffer width of 15 m and a median specific retention of 5.4% m−1. Vermaat et al. (2009a)