Table 3. Key review papers on participation in conservation research and monitoring, comparing models and terminologies. Column headings are terms used in this paper, from Bonney et al. (2009a). Column entries are the terms used in each paper to describe an analogous model, based on the degree of participation in the research process.

Contributory Collaborative Co-created
Wilderman et al. 2004 Community workers 1 Community workers 2 Community-based participatory research
Fernandez-Gimenez et al. 2008 Community involvement primarily in the data-gathering phase Community involvement primarily in the objective-setting, design, and interpretation phases Community involvement in most or all phases of monitoring
Cooper et al. 2007 Citizen science research Adaptive citizen science and Adaptive co-management research Participatory action research
Danielsen et al. 2009 Externally driven with local data collectors Collaborative monitoring with eternal data interpretation Collaborative monitoring with local data interpretation
Lawrence 2006 Consultative and Functional categories Collaborative Transformative
Lawrence applies to PPSR categories and theory derived in context of development studies, but concludes that these particular categories may be presumptuous regarding outcomes in PPSR volunteer biological monitoring contexts.