Table 2. Models for public participation in scientific research (PPSR). X = public included in aspect; (X) = public sometimes involved in aspect

Aspects of scientific research/monitoring process: Contractual Projects Contributory Projects: Collaborative Projects: Co-Created Projects: Collegial Projects
Choose or define question(s) for study X X X
Gather information and resources (X) X X
Develop explanations (hypotheses) X X
Design data collection methodologies (X) X X
Collect samples and/or record data X X X X
Analyze samples X X X
Analyze data (X) X X X
Interpret data and draw conclusions (X) (X) X X
Disseminate conclusions/translate results into action (X) (X) (X) X X
Discuss results and ask new questions X X X