Table 1. How public participants interact with scientists through public participation in scientific research (PPSR)

Public action in each PPSR model Members of the public...
Contract ... ask scientists to conduct a scientific investigation and report on results
Contribute ... are asked by scientists to collect and contribute data and/or samples
Collaborate ... assist scientists in developing a study and collecting and analyzing data for shared research goals
Co-create ... develop a study and work with input from scientists to address a question of interest or an issue of concern
Colleagues ... independently conduct research that advances knowledge in a scientific discipline