Table 3. Influence of education on existing area-specific risk

Factors influencing people’s level of risk Influence of (lower) education
Illustrative examples of how lower levels of education might increase risk
Hazard(s) Increased exposure to existing hazards due to high and increasing numbers of people in the same disaster-prone settlement with no option or little interest in moving to lower risk areas, resulting in:
• Increased proximity of housing and infrastructure to hazards
• Expansion of informal settlements into high-risk areas
Intensified hazards and creation of new ones, such as: Floods related to extensive littering and inadequate infrastructure
• Landslides due to excavation, deforestation, intensive littering, and inadequate construction
• Fire due to inadequate electricity connection
Vulnerability • Concentration of highly defenseless population groups weakened by diseases, conflict, work-related injuries, family disruptions, etc.
• Organized crime and corruption affecting community cohesion and information flow on risk and risk reduction
• High numbers of teenage pregnancies and vulnerable households with single mothers, numerous children, or other dependents, etc.
• High numbers of people working in informal and physically demanding jobs with no or little social protection
• Limited access to formal assistance and low influence on decision-making processes (for risk management)
• Inadequate housing construction and infrastructure
• Mistrust in authorities, including planning authorities and emergency organizations
Response mechanisms and structures • Reduced mobility of people with poor health, single mothers, and families with many children
• Reduced mobility due to low income (e.g., no personal vehicle and lack of money for paying public transportation)
• Reduced mobility due to organized crime (resulting in high levels of insecurity and increased expenses for “protection” offered by criminal groups)
• Lack of emergency access and evacuation roads (due to informal living conditions)
• Limited access to formal response mechanisms (due to informal living conditions)
• Mistrust in authorities and thus ignorance of disaster warnings, alerts, evacuations, offered emergency shelter, etc.
• Difficulties in communication and contact with emergency organizations
Recovery mechanism and structures • Difficulty recovering quickly due to poor health conditions
• No access to formal recovery credits (due to informal work, no legal tenure, no permission to use assisted housing as collateral, no official address, etc.)
• Mistrust in authorities (which might lead to refusal or inadequate use of recovery assistance offered)