Table 1. Past and present chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and holm-oak (Quercus ilex L.) rural forests (RFs) use. (Sources: primary data and bibliographic sources Chatin 1892, Pelen 1987, Dalonis 1996, and Travier 2006).

Past uses of chestnut RF Past uses of holm-oak and truffle RF Parallel past economic activities in chestnut RF Parallel past economic activities, holm-oak and truffle RF Present day uses chestnut RF Present day uses holm-oak and truffle RF Present day parallel economic activities of both RFs
Main staple food for humans; dried chestnuts eaten in soups off season. Fresh chestnuts sold on local markets Truffles for local consumption and local markets. Sold to brokers collecting truffles for transformers living in urban areas Silk industries (17th – 19th century) Viticulture and wine industry Used only in specific dishes locally and in urban areas and mainly in fresh form or transformed: e.g., “crème de
marron ”
Consumed locally at family level but mainly sold directly during fairs and on local markets Agro-tourism
Wood used for fuel and construction Wood used for fuel and construction Wood used in mines and for wood charcoal industries Fuel wood and charcoal industry during the 19th century Timber production Secondary dwellers
Payment of taxes (Middle Ages) Secondary products: mushroom (e.g., Boletus) and game Secondary products: aromatic plants (thyme), game Secondary products: Boletus and game used locally and sold in informal market circuits Secondary product: game, aromatic plants (e.g., thyme)
Chestnuts and leaves: fodder for feeding animals and forest used as grazing grounds for sheep flocks Acorns of holm-oak and tree leaves: fodder for animals and forest used as grazing grounds for large flocks of sheep Pigs fed with chestnuts sold once a year. Goat milk and sheep meat sold and used locally Sheep and goat products used locally and sold Goat cheese (“pélardon” with Protected Designation of Origin). Sheep meat sold Environmental projects
A political refuge area during the Catholic-Protestant religious wars in Cévennes in the 17th century Area of refuge for young unemployed urban dwellers