Table 1. Selected provisional sustainable development goals (from among those defined by planetary boundaries and Polestar transition scenarios, Raskin et al. 2010)

Indicator Measure Base year (2005) 2025 2050 2100
Incidence of chronic hunger % of 2005 value 50 25 6
Population in water stress Billion people 1.73 <2 <2 <2
Volume of freshwater use from rivers, lakes, aquifers in km3/yr 2,600 km3/yr <4,000 km3/yr of consumptive use of blue water resources (runoff for irrigation, industry, and domestic use)
Climate change CO2 concentration in ppm Current level
391 ppm
Stabilize <350 ppm by 2100 and/or
A total climate forcing at equilibrium of <1 W/m2
Land-use change Fraction of global land cover converted to cultivated systems (%)
~12% <15% of land surface on Earth converted to cropland
Rate of biodiversity loss Extinction rate as extinctions per million species per year (E/MSY) 100–1000 <10 species lost per million species each year, which still is roughly 10 times the natural background rate of loss of species on Earth
Proxy also for reduction of absolute poverty