Table 2. The de Groot et al. (2002) typology for the capacity of the natural world to meet human needs.

Structure Process Function Service
The biotic and abiotic components that make up ecosystems (and the Earth system) Flows of matter and energy mediated through the interactions of the biotic and abiotic parts of the system The ecosystem’s capacity to regulate and sustain its structures and processes The benefits derived by humans from a well-functioning ecosystem