Table 1. A typology of multidisciplinarity and interdisciplinarity, according to Huutoniemi et al. (2010).

Mode of collaboration Description
Encyclopedic multidisciplinarity Subprojects from different fields are linked loosely by a topic, and the disciplines work with separate problems using their own methodology.
Contextualizing multidisciplinarity Knowledge is produced in a context in relation to problem setting, which binds research groups with related interests.
Composite multidisciplinarity Elements, research tasks, or knowledge are externalized or transferred in a modularized way from one field to another as a combination of expertise, but interaction is technical rather than dialogic.
Empirical interdisciplinarity Data are integrated to examine relationships between phenomena or to produce a combination of evidence to solve a problem.
Methodological interdisciplinarity A combination of different methodological approaches in an integrated manner.
Theoretical interdisciplinarity Theories, concepts, or models are synthesized to devise new theoretical approaches for interdisciplinary analyses.